Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Health Problem Of Aids - 1652 Words

Getting to Know HIV Alberto Macias ID#: 58522456 PH 1- Dr. Bic November 8, 2015 Public Health Problem HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It attacks the t-cells in the human body and when it destroys so many, it leads to a disease called AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of the HIV infection. HIV is one of the few viruses that is yet to be curable, so once you contract it, you have it for life. It affects the cells of the immune system that fight off diseases or infections from the human body. This leads to a greater vulnerability to get deadly infections. Not many who have HIV advance to the final stage, AIDS because there is a medical procedure that can control it (CDC 2013). This medical procedure is called ART (antiretroviral therapy). HIV exists in our society and is spread mainly by having unprotected sex, sex without a condom with someone that has the disease. About 50,000 people get infected every year and if left untreated, it can lead to AIDS and be fatal. It is also spread through the sharing of syringes and needles with HIV+ patients for drug use. HIV does not survive for a prolong period of time outside the body, so the majority of documented cases occur when certain fluids-semen, blood, rectal and vaginal fluids from an HIV infected patient can transmit the virus. Studies show that the virus started in West Africa and was likely trans mitted from an infected chimpanzee to a humanShow MoreRelatedThe Health Problem Of Hiv / Aids2353 Words   |  10 Pages Health problem is a pathological state, in which a physical condition caused by the disease. To make the person free from the diseases is the main goal of the Health promotion program. Now I am interested to discuss about on epidemiological case i.e. HIV/AIDS, which is more common in world wide. And more dangerous which spoils the person’s life knowingly or unknowingly and I want to create awareness regarding this disease mainly in rural areas and use important health promotion programsRead MoreA Research Study On Palliative Care1663 Words   |  7 Pagesand new cases in older people. To manage this increasing population a holistic care is needed. According to World Health Organization (2002) â€Å"Palliative care is an approach which improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing life-threatening illness, through the prevention, assessment and treatment of pain and other physical, psychosocial and spiritual problems† (para. 1). Palliative care aim is not to prolong life, but it helps greatly in relieving pain and symptoms of theRead MoreHiv / Aids : A Global Health System1606 Words   |  7 PagesHIV/AIDS: A global health system Rita K. Asiedu Rutgers University Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is a pandemic problem affecting global health. At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. The rate of incidence is more prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa with almost 1 in every 24 adults living with HIV/AIDS. In the united states, HIV/AIDS is a diversified health problem affecting all sexes, ages and races and involving the transmission of multipleRead MoreProblem And Extent Of Hiv / Aids1539 Words   |  7 PagesProblem and Extent of HIV/AIDS Impact in China From the narrative, Dazou merely represents one of the thousands of people who have contracted HIV through paid plasma plasma donation and unhygienic blood banks. The National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China reports 501,000 reported cases of people living with HIV/AIDS. Although the pervasiveness of HIV may be low compared to China’s 1.3 billion population, certain communities have HIV prevalence rates as highRead MoreThe Health Of The Modern Health Care968 Words   |  4 Pagespopulation health factors are a subject of extensive discussion within the American health care system; nonetheless, few comprehend the bearing to the modern health care environment. An array of factors like personal, social, economic, and environment issues influence and determines the health of individual and population, acting in various combinations (Knickman Kovner, 2015). These determinants of health, known as population health determinants generall y include genetics, access to health care, individualRead MorePoor And Developing Countries All Over The World Have Health Problems1570 Words   |  7 Pagesdeveloping countries all over the world have health problems and are in major need of medical help. Sending aid to the countries seems like a logical solution to the problem, and can have benefits if used properly. Medical aid is any donation or service to help improve a situation by an organization or donor government. Eran Bendavid, an assistant professor in the Division of General Medicine Disciplines at Stanford University found that â€Å"Foreign aid for health care is directly linked to an increaseRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ) / Aids1278 Words   |  6 PagesHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is a pandemic problem affecting global health. At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. The rate of incidence is more prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa with almost 1 in every 24 adults living with HIV/AIDS. In the united states, HIV/AIDS is a diversified health problem affecting all sexes, ages and races and involving the transmission of multiple risk behavior. However, with the introduction of various prevention programs andRead MoreMass Education On Hiv / Aids1073 Words   |  5 PagesProject I: Mass education on HIV/AIDS to reduce stigma a. Who is the in-country implementing partner? The Global Fund will partner the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC), a humanitarian social relief organization. The organization’s mission is to protect the health and lives of the people by launching its Nationwide HIV Programme. Within RSCS, it organizes a wide array of programs, ranging from disaster prepared to First Aid training. HIV/AIDS prevention and care is among one of the programs thatRead MoreThe Health Of The Population Health937 Words   |  4 Pagespopulation health factors is a subject of extensive discussion within American health care system, nonetheless, few comprehend the bearing to modern health care environment. An array of factors like personal, social, economic, and environment issues influence and determines the health of individual and population, acting in various combination (Knickman Kovner, 2015). These determinants of health, known as population health determinants generally include genetics, access to health care, individualRead MoreAfrican American Women Living With Hiv Aids1576 Words   |  7 PagesLIVING WITH HIV AIDS 1 AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV AIDS 9 African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS Ruth Dionne Davis SCWK 620 Winthrop University Department of Social Work Abstract HIV/AIDS is a major concern in the African American community. African American women have the highest incidence rate of HIV infection with a steady increase over the years. Extreme poverty, unemployment, underemployment and mental health issues are

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Money, Banking, and Financial Market Free Essay Example, 2500 words

The major cause of the financial crisis was increased uncertainties. Many people speculated that their investments will have greater yields in the future, and this was not the case. They incurred losses and this reduced their wealth. Also, the government of the United States had a lot of money and wanted to create self-employment for its citizens. They reduced the interest rates to encourage people to borrow these funds and invest. Many people did not return their loans and the country was reported to be bankrupt. Another major cause of the financial crisis was with the banks. They did not have adequate information about its customers, especially when giving out loans. The people too did not have trust with their banks and this led to bank runs and bank panics. This reduced the amount of money available in the financial system that could be used to develop other sectors of the economy. This forced the countries affected to borrow a huge sum of money from the World Bank and this incr eased their debts. The stock prices were also reduced for the government to obtain the little funds that were in the economy to finance its operations. We will write a custom essay sample on Money, Banking, and Financial Market or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Research Proposal Electronic Health Records Free Essays

string(48) " that the computer literacy rate was high \(72\." Effects of Technological Experience on Adoption and Usage of Electronic Health Records Introduction The integration of electronic health records in the IT infrastructures supporting medical facilities enables improved access to and recording of patient data, enhanced ability to make more informed and more-timely decisions, and decreased errors. Despite these benefits, there are mixed results as to the use of EHR. The aim of this research is to determine if medical health professionals who lack experience with technology are slower to adopt and use electronic health records (EHR). We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal Electronic Health Records or any similar topic only for you Order Now Research has shown that the healthcare industry is plagued by rapidly increasing costs and poor quality. The United States medical care is the world’s most costly, but its outcomes are mediocre compared with other industrialized, and some non-industrialized, nations. Medical errors are a major problem resulting in upwards of 98000 deaths a year; as a result, patient safety has become a top priority. The healthcare system has been slow to take advantage of EHR and realize the benefits of computerization: that is, to improve access to records and patient data, to reduce incorrect dose errors, avoid drug interactions, and ensure the right patient is in the operating room (Noteboom 2012). Despite the obvious benefits a 2007 survey by the American Hospital Association reported that only 11% of hospitals had fully implemented EHR. Another study by Vishwanath Scamurra reported less than 10% of physicians in different practices and settings in the US use EHR. Blumenthal (2009) cites only 1. 5% of US hospitals have comprehensive EHR systems. A similar 2009 study by the American Hospital Association shows less than 2% of hospitals use comprehensive EHR and about 8% use a basic EHR in at least one care unit. These findings indicate the adoption of HER continues to be low in US hospitals (Manos, 2009). Understanding the reason for the lack of technological integration is pivotal to securing quality and affordable medical care. Education expert Mark Prensky (2001) defined two terms, digital natives and digital immigrants, which he used to describe those who have an innate ability for technology from an early age (native) and those who are slower to learn and adopt it (immigrant). This disparity is suggested to play a key role in the ability and desire of professional to use technological solutions in their day-to-day activities. Our intent is to expand this possibility to medical health professionals’ use of electronic health records. Our research will attempt to determine if being native to technology has any impact on a practitioner’s desire to incorporate information technology in to their work routine. We will also see if natives have perform better in health information settings as has been shown in other areas. Previous Research A 2008 study by DesRoches et al. attempted to discern barriers to the adoption of electronic health records. The authors conducted a survey of physicians registered in the masterfile of the American Medical Association, excluding Doctors of Osteopathy. The authors listed 4 basic reasons the respondents could choose from; financial barriers, organizational barriers, legal barriers, and barriers from the state of the technology. Respondents could further clarify their responses base on subgroups. Financial barriers could include initial capital to implement the systems or uncertainty about the return on investment. Organizational barriers were sub-divided in to physician didn’t want to, the physicians did not have the capacity to, or they feared there would be a loss of productivity during implementation. Legal barriers included fears of breaches of confidentiality, hackers, and legal liability. State of technology included failure to locate an EHR that could meet their needs or that the system would become obsolete to quickly. Their results show that 66% of physicians without EHR’s cited capital costs as a reason. The also responded with not finding a system to meet their needs, 54%, uncertainty about their return on the investment, 50%, and concern that a system would become obsolete, 44%. Physicians working in locations with EHRs tended to highlight the same barriers, though less frequently. The authors concluded that financial limitations are the greatest barrier to the adoption of electronic health records. They do admit that their study, like all surveys, could be subject to response bias. Burt (2005) also surveyed physicians, this time from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a yearly survey conducted by the US census bureau. The authors were attempting to find correlations between EHR implementation and other statistics, such as age, practice size, and ownership (physician, physician group, or HMO). They used regression modeling and bivariate analysis of three years of survey data. They found that practices owned by HMOs were three times more likely to adopt EHR as single physician or group owned practices. Also, large physician group owned practices (20 or more) had an increased usage of EHR over small group and single physician owned. The authors reported that there were no variations due to practice size in the different ownership groups. Physicians’ age did not have any effect on EHR usage. The authors concluded that the ability of larger practices to spread the sizable investment required to purchase and implement the technology over more physicians and services was the largest factor in implementation EHR. Laerum (2001) was the first to look at how individual Physicians interact and use EHRs on an everyday basis. The conducted surveys and telephone interviews with physician in 32 units of 19 hospitals in Norway, because a much higher percentage of Norwegian hospitals use EHR, about 73%. The authors selected 23 possible common tasks a physician that could be assisted by or completed by an EHR. The also collected computer literacy data, respondent age and sex and overall satisfaction with the system. The authors found that very few of the possible tasks were being utilized in the EHR. The found that on average physicians were using EHR for 2 to 7 of the possible 23 tasks. Most of the tasks used related to reading patient data. The also found that the computer literacy rate was high (72. You read "Research Proposal Electronic Health Records" in category "Essay examples" 2/100) and there was no correlation with respondents age or sex. They gave the users satisfaction as a generally positive rating. Though demonstrating that physicians use EHR less than they could they gave no explanation as to why. Simon (2009) followed the same path as Laerum mentioned above, surveying physicians usage of EHR in practices that have systems deployed. The authors identified ten main functions available in EHR systems deployed in hospitals in Massachusetts. They attempted to determine if these ten functions were actually being utilized or if the physicians were still using paper. The authors deployed mail based surveys, in 2005 and 2007, to physician in Massachusetts. The surveys asked the practitioners if they had an EHR deployed in their hospital, if and how they used the EHR for the ten predetermined tasks, and simple demographic information. The authors found that while EHR deployment grew by 12% (from 23% to 35% of hospitals), the amount of usage self reported didn’t change. EHRs were still mostly being used for reading patient data, but there was a small increase in the use of electronic prescribing, with 19. 9% of physicians with this function available in 2005 using it most of the time, compared to 42. 6% in 2007. Linder (2006) expanded on this by asking why physicians aren’t using EHRs. The authors also conducted a survey of Partners Healthcare; which supports an internally developed, web based, fully functioning EHR called Longitudinal Medical Record. They also expanded their base to include nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians. The survey contained basic demographic information, self-reporting skill level with the EHR, how often they used the EHR, and what they felt were barriers to their use of the system. Since this survey was contained to a system that had already implemented the EHR, the authors had removed the typical barriers of capital as reported above, but they still found that 25% never or rarely used the system, and less than 15% used the system exclusively every time, i. e. never took paper notes or wrote paper prescriptions. They found no correlation of EHR usage to age or gender, but did find that nurses were slightly less likely to use the system. The most uprising data was why practitioners said they didn’t use the EHR with 62% of respondents saying they didn’t want to suffer a loss of eye contact with the patients and 31% of respondents saying that they thought it was rude to use a computer in front of a patient. Other notable reasons were falling behind schedule at 52%, computer being to slow (49%), typing skill (32%), and preferring to write â€Å"long prose notes† (28%). This was the first study to identify social barriers to the adoption of EHR in professional settings. Since the majority of the research had been unable to identify simple solutions a series of workshops consisting of industry leaders were formed to study the problem. Kaplan (2009) reports that participants convened and discussed current issues and challenges with widespread adoption of EHR. The workshops conclude that while there are still some technical issues with Information technology in the health sector the main focus needs to shift to revealing sociological and cultural problems. Noteboom (2012) took a different method to determine barriers to EHR adoption; eschewing all previous research in to problems with the usage of EHRs. The authors decide to use an approach more commonly seen in social sciences called open coding, a type of grounded theory. This method is almost the complete revers of traditional research in that it starts with data collection. From this data, key points of text, in this case transcripts from case studies, are marked with a series of codes. These codes are anchors that allow key points of data to be gathered. The researcher can then use these key points to construct a theory or hypothesis. Noteboom started with simple interviews with physician, attempting to elicit â€Å"perceptions, meanings, feelings, reasons, and comments† about their interaction with EHRs. The interviewed physician at the Research Medical Center, Kansas City, and labeled the transcripts of these interviews. From these interviews the authors discovered that users of EHR fall victim to positive and negative work cycles. Positive cycles are ways in which the system helps the physician, i. e. quicker reading of patient data or mining historical data. Negative cycles are tasks that take longer like data entry, which was done by nurses prior to EHR implementation, or lack of specific functions for specialists, calculate rad dosage for radiation therapy. Design Our research methodology will consist of a case study of medical health professional, preferably physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and nurse practitioners, currently employed in an institute running EHRs. The primary data will be gathered through interviews to elicit perceptions on ability to adapt to and use new technology, feelings on the implementation of the technology, comments about the systems, and history of their technology use (to determine natives and immigrants). Secondary data will be collected by having competent users observing participants interaction with the system and evaluating their efficacy. Once the data has been collected it will be analyzed to determine if there is any correlation between digital natives and digital immigrants as it pertains to their use of EHR. Special attention will be paid to how often the system is used compared to the theoretical maximum and how efficient the practitioner is compared to how efficient they perceive they are. Requirements to conduct this study are small. All that is required are willing hospitals that have EHR systems installed, hopefully with a diverse staff spanning many age groups and experience levels. We would also require around 5 interviewers who are well versed in assessing software efficacy to conduct the interviews and gauge practitioners’ abilities on the EHR system. Statistical data will be calculated on IBM SPSS or similar. ? References Bates, D. W. , Ebell, M. , Gotlieb, E. , Zapp, J. , Mullins, H. C. (2003). A proposal for electronic medical records in US primary care. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 10(1), 1-10. Blumenthal, D. (2009). Stimulating the adoption of health information technology. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(15), 1477-1479. Burt, C. W. , Sisk, J. E. (2005). Which physicians and practices are using electronic medical records?. Health Affairs, 24(5), 1334-1343. DesRoches, C. M. , Campbell, E. G. , Rao, S. R. , Donelan, K. , Ferris, T. G. , Jha, A. , †¦ Blumenthal, D. (2008). Electronic health records in ambulatory care—a national survey of physicians. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(1), 50-60 Kohn, L. T. , Corrigan, J. , Donaldson, M. S. (2000). To err is human: building a safer health system (Vol. 6). Joseph Henry Press. Kaplan, B. , Harris-Salamone, K. D. (2009). Health IT success and failure: recommendations from literature and an AMIA workshop. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(3), 291-299. L? rum, H. , Ellingsen, G. , Faxvaag, A. (2001). Doctors’ use of electronic medical records systems in hospitals: cross sectional survey. Bmj, 323(7325), 1344-1348. Linder, J. A. , Schnipper, J. L. , Tsurikova, R. , Melnikas, A. J. , Volk, L. A. , Middleton, B. (2006). Barriers to electronic health record use during patient visits. In AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings (Vol. 2006, p. 499). American Medical Informatics Association Manos, D. (2009). New study shows few hospitals have comprehensive EHR. Healthcare IT News. McDonald, C. J. (1997). The barriers to electronic medical record systems and how to overcome them. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 4(3), 213-221. Noteboom, C. , Bastola, D. , Qureshi, S. (2012, January). Cycles of Electronic Health Records Adaptation by Physicians: How Do the Positive and Negative Experiences with the EHR System Affect Physicians’ EHR Adaptation Process?. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 2685-2695). IEEE Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants Part 2: Do they really think differently?. On the horizon, 9(6), 1-6 Simon, S. R. , Soran, C. S. , Kaushal, R. , Jenter, C. A. , Volk, L. A. , Burdick, E. , †¦ Bates, D. W. (2009). Physicians’ use of key functions in electronic health records from 2005 to 2007: a statewide survey. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(4), 465-470. Vishwanath, A. , Scamurra, S. D. (2007). Barriers to the adoption of electronic health records: using concept mapping to develop a comprehensive empirical model. Health Informatics Journal, 13(2), 119-134. How to cite Research Proposal Electronic Health Records, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

History of the Tibetan Genocide Essay Example For Students

History of the Tibetan Genocide Essay For 48 years, China has occupied Tibet. In Tibets history, there has been over 17 percent of the Tibetan people killed, and 6,000 monasteries ruined. For starters, Tibet was never part of China. During the first few years when China was in control of Tibet, the Chinese declared that Tibet should be part of China, because an Emperor of Tibet once married a Chinese princess. Years later, the Chinese said that Tibet was part of China because of the warrior Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan and the Mongolians were in control of Tibet, but they never made Tibet belong to China. Secondly, the Tibetan people and the Chinese are totally different, culturally and socially speaking. Both peoples have their own culture, way of life, and religion. Of course the language is very diverse, too. Tibet had their own government before the Chinese took over. It was led by His Royal Highness, the Dalai Lama. Before the Chinese came in and took over Tibet, Tibet had nothing to do with China. The Chinese invaded Tibet in July of 1949. They caused many disasters and much sadness to the Tibetan people. Today Tibet is nothing but a prison. The Chinese continually spy on the Tibetan people. Seventeen percent of the Tibetan population was killed. Many Chinese forcibly removed Tibetans out of their homes at any time, day or night, and sometimes these people were thrown into prison. These people also were often killed for no reason. Ever since the Chinese have taken over the Tibetan people, there have been over 1 millon people killed. There were 6 million Tibetans living in Tibet before the Chinese came and took over the country. In the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, the natives of Tibet are being rid of by the Chinese; the Chinese are filling up Lhasa with Chinese people and the Chinese want to make Tibet throughly Chinese. Today, the Tibetan people are a minority in their own country! All the better jobs go to the Chinese people living in Tibet. The Tibetan people cannot find jobs for themselves, the best job sometimes they can get is to become a truck driver. What the Chinese are really doing is committing against the Tibetan people, a cultural and religious genocide. The culture of Tibet is based on Bons ancient beliefs, and also on Buddhism from India. The Tibetans take the best of the two religions, and their entire culture is based on that. But now the Chinese have gotten rid of the beautiful Tibetan artifacts, and turned them into museums, for tourists only. The Dalai Lama is always trying to make contact with the Chinese, but they keep the door to peace talks closed. Some time ago, the Dalai Lama said: All the 6 million Tibetans should be on the list of endangered species. This struggle is my first responsibility. (Dalai Lama: http://www.meaus.com/Tibet_-Give_Us_Liberty.html) There are people all over the world who feel sincere solidarity with the courageous people of Tibet, and wish them success in their long, truly heroic struggle for liberty and peace. .

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Of All The Ethnic Groups In The World, The Kurds Are One Of The Essays

Of all the ethnic groups in the world, the Kurds are one of the largest that has no state to call their own. According to historian William Westermann, "The Kurds can present a better claim to race purity...than any people which now inhabits Europe." (Bonner, p. 63, 1992) Over the past hundred years, the desire for an independent Kurdish state has created conflicts mainly with the Turkish and Iraqi populations in the areas where most of the Kurds live. This conflict has important geographical implications as well. The history of the Kurdish nation, the causes for these conflicts, and an analysis of the situation will be discussed in this paper. History of the Kurds The Kurds are a Sunni Muslim people living primarily in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. The 25 million Kurds have a distinct culture that is not at all like their Turkish, Persian, and Arabic neighbors (Hitchens, p. 36, 1992). It is this cultural difference between the groups that automatically creates the potential for conflict. Of the 25 million Kurds, approximately 10 million live in Turkey, four million in Iraq, five million in Iran, and a million in Syria, with the rest scattered throughout the rest of the world (Bonner, p. 46, 1992). The Kurds also have had a long history of conflict with these other ethnic groups in the Middle East, which we will now look at. The history of Kurds in the area actually began during ancient times. However, the desire for a Kurdish homeland did not begin until the early 1900s, around the time of World War I. In his Fourteen Points, President Woodrow Wilson promised the Kurds a sovereign state (Hitchens, p. 54, 1992). The formation of a Kurdish state was supposed to have been accomplished through the Treaty of Sevres in 1920 which said that the Kurds could have an independent state if they wanted one (Bonner, p. 46, 1992). With the formation of Turkey in 1923, Kemal Ataturk, the new Turkish President, threw out the treaty and denied the Kurds their own state. This was the beginning of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict. At about this same time, the Kurds attempted to establish a semi-independent state, and actually succeeded in forming the Kingdom of Kurdistan, which lasted from 1922-1924; later, in 1946, some of the Kurds established the Mahabad Republic, which lasted for only one year (Prince, p. 17, 1993). In 1924, Turkey even passed a law banning the use of the Kurdish language in public places. Another group of people to consider is the Kurds living in Iraq. Major conflict between the Kurds and Iraqis did not really begin until 1961, when a war broke out that lasted until 1970. Around this time, Saddam Hussein came to power in Iraq. In 1975, Hussein adopted a policy of eradicating the Kurds from his country. Over the next fifteen years, the Iraqi army bombed Kurdish villages, and poisoned the Kurds with cyanide and mustard gas (Hitchens, p. 46, 1992). It is estimated that during the 1980s, Iraqis destroyed some 5000 Kurdish villages (Prince, p. 22, 1993). From this point, we move into the recent history and current state of these conflicts between the Kurds and the Turks, and the Kurds against the Iraqis. Causes for Conflict The reasons for these conflicts have great relevance to geography. The areas of geography relating to these specific conflicts are a historical claim to territory on the part of the Kurds, cultural geography, economic geography, and political geography. These four areas of geography can best explain the reasons for these Kurdish conflicts. First, the Kurds have a valid historical claim to territory. They have lived in the area for over 2000 years. For this reason, they desire the establishment of a Kurdish homeland. Iraqis and Turks, while living in the area for a long period of time, cannot make a historical claim to that same area. The conflict arises, however, because the area happens to lie within the borders of Iraq and Turkey. Even though the Kurds claim is valid, the Turks and Iraqis have chosen to ignore it and have tried to wipe out the Kurds. Second, and probably most important, is that this conflict involves cultural geography. The Kurds are ethnically and culturally different from both the Turks and the Iraqis. They speak a different language, and while all three groups are Muslim, they all practice different forms. The Kurds have used this cultural difference as a reason to establish a homeland. However, the Turks and Iraqis look at the contrast in ethnicity in a much different sense. The government of Turkey viewed any religious or ethnic

Saturday, March 7, 2020

History Africa and 15 th Century Essay

History Africa and 15 th Century Essay History: Africa and 15 th Century Essay AFRICAN HISTORY SINCE 1600 FINAL EXAMINATION 1. The first European country that arrived on the African Continent in the 15th century was the Portuguese. The Portuguese explored and claimed more of the West African coast and islands, with trade being established with Ghana, Gabon, Mali, and Benin in the 1470’s. They started to establish treaties trading weapons for slaves and this lead to warfare, starvation and in some regions depopulation. Bases were established on small islands off the West Coast of Africa, most importantly Sao Thome and Cape Verde being used to collect slaves traded from the mainland. Slavery had a huge impact on Africa causing King Alfonso I, who was the King at the time, to lose half of his kingdom. By the late 15th century Portugal had extended its reach along the east coast of Africa trying to establish a dominance in trade, they began slave trading in Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Mozambique in result of some East African kingdoms asking the Portuguese for help. 7. The Berlin Conference was a meeting set up by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the major western powers to negotiate and come to the conclusion of who will control Africa. Africa was divided into fifty irregular countries in which fourteen of them were represented by a number of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time were Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Denmark, Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Sweden-Norway, Turkey and the United States of America. But France, Great Britain, Germany and Portugal were the major players in the conference and were controlling most of colonial Africa. The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River mouths and basins would be open for trade. At the time of the conference, only coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers tried really ha rd to gain control over the heart of the continent. The Berlin Conference managed to come up with a set of

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Three short essay questions Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Three short questions - Essay Example In such a state, government has no rights to deny its citizens the rights to do anything. Citizens are free to do anything and at any time. They are allowed to access any material and use any property so long as it does not affect anyone. The government in such a state has no rights to tax its citizens and to restrict its citizens from doing any form of business or activity. Nozick advocates for such a state and says it has respects for a person's moral rights (Wolterstorff & Cuneo 89). The next state is the welfare state where citizens are the source of the political will, and they are given the chance to participate in its formation, they are also, the subjects against which the institution will be judged, and they depend upon states free services, programs and general items for their satisfaction materially. I prefer the welfare state, as it has laws that guarantee persons' safety at all times. It is one in which the heads of the government so selected to rule over the subjects ha ve some responsibility to satisfy their citizens. The form of government in Europe differs with that in the United States in that, in Europe, there is use of democratic monarchy while, in the United States, they use welfare liberal democracy. Use of the monarchy system does not allow multiple parties to contest in an election. Only one royal family inherits the throne throughout the country’s history (Wolterstorff & Cuneo 78). Question # 2 Nikita is one of my favorite movie shows. It concerns a young girl who was abducted by a secret government body and trained to be an assassin, but she fled from them and started to work against them. In the movie, there are several artistic styles used. These qualify it as art. According to David Humes theory, every artistic thing, is good provided it is appealing to an individual (Ascott & Shanken 34). Individual tastes are acceptable and allowed to be referred to as art. Owing to this, the movie Nikita is a good art. Using the object cent ered theory, an art, is classified on the objects qualities and not what it represents or expresses. This also is in line with the movie as the objects used to pass the message are well organized and have good qualities. The progress of the movie is also well structured and this classifies the movie as being good. The next theory that art is judged against is in consideration of the limits of formalism. In this theory, any piece of art is rated against the qualities of the objects as well as the context and content. Considering Nikita as a piece of art, it actually passes this test as all characters are usually well groomed in accordance to the occasion and have quality content, which they deliver. I also rated art against expression. A good piece of art is supposed to be expressive. It should explain its meaning and the message in it by itself. It does not need explanations to be clear. According to Leo Tolstoy, art should also be emotional. The objects used should show emotions wi th every word and body movement used. Every body language used should show emotions. John Dewey, an American pragmatist, views art with reference to the writer’s thoughts and feelings. He gathered this from experience. He says that before a poet does any art, then it is