Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Essay on Aircraft

Question: Compose an article on your preferred airplane mishap from the progressed streamlined point. Answer: Presentation An air crash is the flight incident and mishap (He Li, 2011). A ton of the carriers like helicopter, planes, fly planes and air inflatables are intended to ensure that there is a colossal degree of wellbeing gave to travelers. In any case, the avionics mishaps occur and are destructive to lives. It is unavoidable mishap that cant be anticipated. It brings the unfortunate death toll. These flight mishaps can occur because of different key factors, for example, human mistake, awful climatic conditions, and disappointment of motor, flying component breakdown or breakdown of the gadget. Aside from that, other common factors that lead to the flight mishaps are the blunders of traffic control framework, winged animal strikes, fire in the lodge, and deformities in configuration, harm, lacking fuelling, high jacking and lighting issues. The instance of an Asiana Airlines Flight 214 Boeing with number 777-200ER, HL7742 San Francisco, California, has been considered to comprehend the abilities that are required to be educated to the individuals who try to be a piece of the directing profession. Reasons for occasion The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) assessed various norms concerning weariness like the last rest and its quality, circadian viewpoints alongside the timeframe wakeful and so on. It was presumed that the fundamental driver of the mishap was that during that mishap all the three pilots had been experiencing any sort of weakness. This may be an unsettling influence in the circadian regularityand having less or broken rest then common rest. Along these lines, the exhibitions of the considerable number of pilots were ruined at the hour of mishap. Exhaustion is a human perspective which isn't anything but difficult to be characterized yet when we take a gander at others we can recognize this inclination. It tends to be a mental/mental or physical sort of weakness. By mental/mental weakness there can be a drop found in the subjective conduct. It diminishes the ability to do any errand in a protected a viable way. Then again, a physical exhaustion happens when the muscles are worn out and the individual can't maintain ideal physical execution. Weariness can be a fleeting circumstance on account of deficient rest anyway it can bring serious physical and mental inability. Weakness is usuallyconfused with the terms like lethargy or sleepiness. In spite of the fact that drowsiness and exhaustion are interrelated still they can't be named as equivalent words. According to the International common flight association, weariness can be characterized as-a physiological state of a diminished passionate or physical execution limit which is caused because of lacking rest or broad eagerness, circadian stage or unreasonable remaining burden which can ruin the crewmembers mindfulness and ability to securely do the errand/obligations (ICAO, 2013). For surveying the reason for the mishap the quantity of long stretches of rest of the pilot flying, pilot checking and the spectator had been assessed as for their typical rest hours. According to the reports by NTSB, the pilot who was flying the airplane had got less long periods of rest then his ordinary in the 24 hours before the accident. So it tends to be seen that the fundamental driver of the setback was nonconsolidated rest which isn't similarly remedial to the united one. Likewise despite the fact that the pilot checking and the onlooker detailed that they had sufficient rest in the past 24 hours anyway that rest was sectioned which decreased the remedial worth. One more reason for the mishap was that all these three individuals were confronting the issue of weariness in light of the fact that the hour of mishap was among their ordinary dozing hours. Now of time theirphysiological mindfulness was at its most reduced. Outcomes of the occasion According to the NTSBs reports gave: 3 out of the 291 travelers were genuinely injured, 40 workers got extreme injuries. The Boeing was harmed by a post-crash blazes and impact administrations. Essential and secondarycauses of the mishap Despite the fact that Asiana had embraced various strides for forestalling and relieving weariness, still the essential driver of this mishap was exhaustion. The means engaged with preparing the pilots and the mishap groups on the circumstances and logical results of weakness (Williams, 2017). In this preparation the procedures were likewise been shared for minimisation of weakness and the flight group was told about the rest exercises. There were arrangement of turning the essential and ease pilots all together that pilots were consistently mindful. Despite the fact that there was an Observer additionally aside for the screen so the essential flight groups exercises were recorded in the checking limit was improved. Past every one of these measures being embraced, the timings of this flight had colossal odds of causing weariness. So it tends to be said that essential driver of this mishap was the exhaustion and the auxiliary reason had been timing or booking of the flight. Chain of occasions that prompted possible mishap There was flight team's botch as from the earliest starting point there had been a period of stress that decreased the limit ofpilotto screen the flyingpilotsactivities. Thiswas whenthere was an accidental deactivation of programmed velocity control framework. Despite the fact that when the plane was at 200 feet One or twocrewmembersgot to know about the lower velocity andsituation howeverno move was made and tell the airplane went beneath hundred feet. After this, the circumstance went out of hand. The flight team was confronting weakness, which prompted the degree of theactivities whiledoing their work. There was even non-normalized correspondence and coordination among the flying pilot and money related pilot when they needed to settle on decisions for controlling the AFDS (autopilot flight chief framework) and A/T (autothrottle) was there. There was a perplexity which carried debasement of their capacities to manage A/T and AFDS. So there was a progression of missteps like deficiency of Crew checking of velocity signals which was caused because of weariness, reliance on mechanization, higher remaining task at hand, and high anticipation. Considerably after this there had been delayedstart-upof recuperation ventures by the flying pilot and the observing pilot once they became more acquainted with off the low-force and low velocity. This happened dueto mixtureof shock, non-normalized correspondence and the perplexity of job duty. The NTSB discovered that the conceivable reason for the disaster was set of occasions like: The airplanes groups blunder prompted the airplane crash, the pilot who was flying unintended deactivated the programmed year speeding control framework, Flight group individuals were not satisfactorily checking the velocity, Flight group individuals additionally postponed the minding out of their activity once they came to know about the airplane beingunderthe adequate skimming part and velocity limits. So all in all,it can be said that the occasions which prompted the setback were complexities of autothrottle and auto pilot flying chief plans that were not adequately clarified in Boeing's archives and Asiana's pilot direction, which prompted the odds of off base mode.Alsothere was non-normalized correspondence and coordination among the group individuals which was as far as theutilisationof autothrottle and auto pilot flight frameworks. The pilot who was flying was not sufficiently trainedtowardsthe planningand gettingout of visual frameworks. The checking pilot or the teacher was additionally not satisfactorily directing the pilot who was flying the airplane. At last every one of these variables were joined with the group's weakness which minimized the exhibitions. Suggestions for flight security improvement According to NTSB it is suggested that vital advances are embraced for taking care of such circumstances anyway it is additionally conceded that it is profoundly entangled to completely evacuate the weakness of team individuals while working for long inaccessible flights. Still this undertaking isn't outlandish and the recommendations are made that aircrafts can accumulate the data with respect to the pilot weariness while completing the activities. By utilization of this information accumulated little modifications can be made in booking and various angles, which can help in amplification of the remainder of the pilots and minimisation of occurring of weakness while there is work pressure. This sort of approach is suggested by ICAO guidelines booklets where in the subject of weariness hazard the executives framework (FRMS) is clarified. During this incident, Asiana was at the underlying period of arranging and creating and FRMS. According to the report gave by NTSB, in the event tha t FRMS is made and executed one time, at that point it can prompt decrease of flight team individuals' weakness. Since this aircraft has trans-meridian flights and long durational flights in this manner it is suggested that the advancement of FRMS is sped up. It is additionally suggested that the flight team individuals follow the administrator SOPs and experience the best possible preparing so that there is improvement in their correspondence, and does prompting moderation of effects of an interpretation of long durational flights. Along these lines the enhancements in these perspectives are recommended References He, G., Li, X. (2011). Numerical Simulation of Loitering Aircraft Aerodynamics in Low Speed Flight. Propelled Materials Research, 204-210, 139-143. Worldwide Civil Aviation Organization: Proposals Concerning Unlawful Interference Against International Civil Aviation. (2013).International Legal Materials,9(06), 1183-1217. Williams, M. (2017).Boeing 777 from Seoul crashes on arriving at San Francisco airport.The Guardian. Recovered 23 August 2017, from terminal plane-crash-boeing

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Sociology of Sport: Baseball

As indicated by Ashley Crossman, â€Å"Sociology of sports, likewise alluded to as sports human science, is the investigation of the connection among sports and society. It analyzes how culture and qualities impact sports, how sports impacts culture and values, and the connection among sports and media, governmental issues, financial aspects, religion, race, sexual orientation, youth, and so forth. It likewise takes a gander at the connection among sports and social disparity and social mobility† (Crossman 2012). Sports are a microcosm of reality; subsequently anybody can grasp a game, as we grasp reality. For instance, in this mid year Olympic Games, Olympic games are upheld by all races and sexes. In the previous history, ladies ordinarily inclined toward acrobatic, swimming or track and field and women’s tennis. Be that as it may, in 2012, the sex and race contribution and viewership uniqueness has shut (Statista 2012). As per Statista, a Dow Jones Company, lady and non-white Olympic Games viewership has expanded by 28%. As I would see it, these details are credited to minorities being progressively engaged with the games, just as the prevailing press have understood the promoting estimation of minority competitors. Baseball was the principal sorted out game I was acquainted with as a youngster. In spite of the fact that I played proficient football, my first love of rivalry and games was baseball. My affection for the game of baseball was given to me by my progression father. The historical backdrop of the game was interesting, even at a youthful age. I was into numbers and insights and having a tutor to clarify the straightforward pieces of the game made it much all the more fascinating, particularly being American’s Pastime. Nonetheless, this can be discussed, as expressed by baseball students of history Frank Ceresi and Carol McMains, â€Å"America’s Pastime’ has been generally thought to have been established by Abner Doubleday in Cooperstown, NY in 1839. In truth, the game advanced over numerous decades, if not hundreds of years, and its underlying foundations are, in actuality, a tangled snare of bat and ball games brought to this nation by immigrants† (Ceresi 2012). Most players and aficionados of baseball have an evidently thankfulness for sports. Seeing that baseball is played on the beginner level, just as the expert level, this game can be delighted in by most socioeconomics. Baseball now and again rises above both social and monetary limits. In any case, being at the ballpark there is by all accounts social classes, as, all things considered, for example, the affluent fans sit in specific territories, while those with constrained funds sits in less expensive segments. It likewise emulates genuine society in different manners, similar to those in the purported ‘cheap’ seats appear to have some good times than those fans in the costly seats. Despite the fact that most value the game, it appears to a greater amount of joy for those in the reasonable seats, while those in the selective box seats treat as if it is a qualification, rather than a benefit. On Thursday, July 26, 2012 I went to an expert small time ball game in San Bernardino, CA. This game pitted the San Bernardino 66er’s, a Los Angeles Angels small time group, versus the Rancho Cucamonga Quakes, a Los Angeles Dodgers small time group. This is a little comfortable arena; anyway it has a similar field measurements as a significant association arena. I picked this scene since I trusted it would show an increasingly assorted sociological perspective, in a nearby and amicable setting. Being a cozy setting, fans can collaborate with different fans, just as mentors and players. This setting considers a fun, family neighborly air and doesn’t have the weights of significant class parks. Albeit winning is the essential objective, this is a formative class and triumph isn't fundamental for progress. Consequently, the ball club the board makes the earth favorable for a positive, agreeable encounter. The fan base was comprised all things considered, from newborn children to senior residents. The sex make-up was likely 60% male and 40% female. The social financial status of the fan base ran from lower salary to white collar class. Small time baseball highly esteems being prudent, with many cost and food specials, for example, $1. 00 frank night, $2. 00 confirmation night, Friday firecrackers appears, and so on. These costs are a significant offering point to pull in people that ordinarily couldn’t stand to go to a significant association ball game; in this way small time baseball is promoted to bring down salary fans. The ethnicity of this fan base was for the most part white and Hispanic, with a couple of African Americans sprinkled in. The fans appear to be respectably taught, with hardly any exemptions. Likewise, in light of the fact that baseball is an overall game, there were numerous foreigners going to the game, principally Mexican and Spanish Americans. Since most players are sent to specific small time groups for improvement, numerous don’t meet similar socioeconomics of the fan base. Be that as it may, this team’s socioeconomics were equivalent to the fan base, including White, Hispanic and African American players. The instructing staff was principally white, with one African American. Since this is a solitary ‘A’ small time club, huge numbers of these players haven’t marked significant class contracts, thusly the majority of them are in the low level of pay, similarly as with this specific fan base. Being an inviting and charming individual, I had the option to associate with different fans, anyway I saw numerous fans sat with and communicated distinctly with their own gathering or nationality. It is likewise clear that the season ticket holders and normal fans cooperate with one another by first name premise, paying little heed to their ethnicity. Most fans appear to be commonly merry and intrigued by the game. Being a small time park, the other promoting strategy is to have cooperation with the fans, for example, utilizing mascots, team promoters, on-field games for the children, and so forth. My last perceptions incorporate that baseball has its own language and most standard fans are incredibly educated of the dialect. Baseball, being generally a moderate game, permits the easygoing fan and customary fan to find out about the mannerisms of the game by tuning in to mentors and different fans. Some youth baseball trainers welcomed their players to instruct them on the game. Much of the time, the majority of the fans indicated comparative conduct, for example, family and fan cooperating, information on the game and generally pleasure in the amusement advertised. One thing that stood apart was the more seasoned fans appear to be more into the genuine game and not in the unique attractions. Be that as it may, my youngsters, just as most other kids appear to be increasingly intrigued by the sideshows and the food. Watching sports humanism at a ball game, in view of strategy investigate, was very fascinating. It permitted me to see the game from an alternate point of view, for example, concentrating on human conduct, in lieu of simply watching the game. I thought viewing a ball game from a humanism viewpoint would be troublesome, anyway I understood a great many people see things a similar way, however don’t have a clinical definition supporting it. ‘People-watching’ is an essential human impulse, however watching a game with a clinical point of view makes it fascinating. â€Å"It is just since 1970 that sports humanism has increased huge consideration as a genuine region of study† (Brown 2012). It is assumed that educators didn't consider how sports affected the social request nor was it extremely critical or essential to human science. As indicated by Brown, â€Å"Sociology of sports presents basic and disputable issues. Since sports are viewed as a microcosm of society, a similar social issues that exist in bigger society additionally exist in sports†. A considerable lot of a similar government arrangements and social abuses exhibited on minorities and ladies were likewise executed in the general public of sports. For instance, ladies were not allowed to take part in numerous games accepted to be a masculine game, similar to baseball or vehicle dashing. Numerous minorities or certain strict gatherings were not permitted to contend in numerous pro athletics and by and large were not allowed to watch the game, with the exception of from a secluded review region. Again, the worries and contentions that sports human science reveals are similar worries that are reflected, in actuality, society. The human science of game has numerous similitudes to reality, as clear in how sports influence one’s regular daily existence. Subsequently, it is basic for an individual to basically consider how we manage life, as roused by our games impact. By doing that we can perceive how sports can upgrade our genuine social aptitudes. Numerous individuals take an interest or watch sports to mitigate pressure, get exercise or just to have a ton of fun. Organizations on occasion create sport groups to manufacture fellowship among their representatives, permitting them to connect outside of the working environment. Sports can fulfill the human requirement for rivalry and human communication. Sports are a microcosm of reality, having a pecking order, for example, players, mentors, refs and onlookers. In actuality, we have workers, supervisors, human relations and clients, for instance. Therefore, individuals incline toward sports for various reasons; anyway they get the equivalent energetic impact. Game fans and genuine game members have comparative desire, regardless of whether it is dominating matches, winning as a group or pulling for your group to triumph. Game human science includes a genuine range of objectives and motivation, similarly as reality. Keeping consistent with one’s sociological perspectives and grasping other’s perspectives can permit an individual to see life through an essential perspective, just as a wide sociological perspective. Sports have a spot in everyone’s ife, regardless of whether it’s physical game or mental game, for example, table games, playing a game of cards or playing psychological distractions with one’s critical other. Rivalry constructs character; Competition is â€Å"the demonstration of contending, with respect to benefit or a prize. † (D’Angelo 2006) It is a te

Sunday, August 16, 2020

The Role of Neurotransmitters

The Role of Neurotransmitters Brain Health Print The Role of Neurotransmitters By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on December 07, 2019 More in Brain Health Brain Food Mental Exercises Healthy Aging In This Article Table of Contents Expand How They Work What They Do Types When They Aren't Working Influencing Drugs Identifying Neurotransmitters View All Back To Top A neurotransmitter is defined as a chemical messenger that carries, boosts, and balances signals between  neurons, or nerve cells, and other cells in the body. These chemical messengers can affect a wide variety of both physical and psychological functions including heart rate, sleep, appetite, mood, and fear. Billions of neurotransmitter molecules work constantly to keep our brains functioning, managing everything from our breathing to our heartbeat to our learning and concentration levels. Verywell / Jessica Olah How Neurotransmitters Work In order for neurons to send messages throughout the body, they need to be able to communicate with one another to transmit signals. However, neurons are not simply connected to one another. At the end of each neuron is a tiny gap called a synapse and in order to communicate with the next cell, the signal needs to be able to cross this small space. This occurs through a process known as neurotransmission. In most cases, a neurotransmitter is released from whats known as the axon terminal after an  action potential  has reached the synapse, a place where neurons can transmit signals to each other. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a neuron, it triggers the release of small sacs called vesicles that contain the neurotransmitters. These sacs spill their contents into the synapse, where the neurotransmitters then move across the gap toward the neighboring cells. These cells contain receptors where the neurotransmitters can bind and trigger changes in the cells. After release, the neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic gap and attaches to the receptor site on the other neuron, either exciting or inhibiting the receiving neuron depending on what the neurotransmitter is. Neurotransmitters act like a key, and the receptor sites act like a lock. It takes the right key to open specific locks. If the neurotransmitter is able to work on the receptor site, it triggers changes in the receiving cell. Sometimes neurotransmitters can bind to receptors and cause an electrical signal to be transmitted down the cell (excitatory). In other cases, the neurotransmitter can actually block the signal from continuing, preventing the message from being carried on (inhibitory). So what happens to a neurotransmitter after its job is complete? Once the neurotransmitter has had the designed effect, its activity can be stopped by different mechanisms. It can be degraded or deactivated by enzymesIt can drift away from the receptorIt can be taken back up by the axon of the neuron that released it in a process known as reuptake Neurotransmitters play a major role in everyday life and functioning. Scientists do not yet know exactly how many neurotransmitters exist, but more than 60 distinct chemical messengers have been identified.?? What They Do Neurotransmitters can be classified by their function:?? Excitatory neurotransmitters:  These types of neurotransmitters have excitatory effects on the neuron, meaning they increase the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. Some of the major excitatory neurotransmitters include epinephrine and norepinephrine. Inhibitory neurotransmitters:  These types of neurotransmitters have inhibitory effects on the neuron; they decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. Some of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters include serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid  (GABA). Some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, can create both excitatory and inhibitory effects depending upon the type of receptors that are present. Modulatory neurotransmitters: These neurotransmitters, often referred to as neuromodulators, are capable of affecting a larger number of neurons at the same time. These neuromodulators also influence the effects of other chemical messengers. Where synaptic neurotransmitters are released by axon terminals to have a fast-acting impact on other receptor neurons, neuromodulators diffuse across a larger area and are more slow-acting. Types There are a number of different ways to classify and categorize neurotransmitters. In some instances, they are simply divided into monoamines, amino acids, and peptides.?? Neurotransmitters can also be categorized into one of six types: Amino Acids Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts as the bodys main inhibitory chemical messenger. GABA contributes to vision, motor control, and plays a role in the regulation of anxiety. Benzodiazepines, which are used to help treat anxiety, function by increasing the efficiency of GABA neurotransmitters, which can increase feelings of relaxation and calm.Glutamate is the most plentiful neurotransmitter found in the nervous system where it plays a role in cognitive functions such as memory and learning. Excessive amounts of glutamate can cause  excitotoxicity resulting in cellular death. This excitotoxicity caused by glutamate build-up is associated with some diseases and brain injuries including Alzheimers disease???, stroke, and epileptic seizures. Peptides Oxytocin is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It is produced by the hypothalamus and plays a role in social recognition, bonding, and sexual reproduction.?? Synthetic oxytocin such as Pitocin is often used as an aid in labor and delivery. Both oxytocin and Pitocin cause the uterus to contract during labor.Endorphins are neurotransmitters than inhibit the transmission of pain signals and promote feelings of euphoria. These chemical messengers are produced naturally by the body in response to pain, but they can also be triggered by other activities such as aerobic exercise.?? For example, experiencing a runners high is an example of pleasurable feelings generated by the production of endorphins. Monoamines Epinephrine is considered both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Generally, epinephrine (adrenaline) is a stress hormone that is released by the adrenal system. However, it functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain.??Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in alertness is involved in the bodys fight or flight response. Its role is to help mobilize the body and brain to take action in times of danger or stress. Levels of this neurotransmitter are typically lowest during sleep and highest during times of stress.Histamine acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord.?? It plays a role in allergic reactions and is produced as part of the immune systems response to pathogens.Dopamine plays an important role in the coordination of body movements. Dopamine is also involved in reward, motivation, and additions.?? Several types of addictive drugs increase dopamine levels in the brain. Parkinsons disease, which is a degenerative disease that results in t remors and motor movement impairments, is caused by the loss of dopamine-generating neurons in the brain.Serotonin plays an important role in regulating and modulating mood, sleep, anxiety, sexuality, and appetite. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, usually referred to as SSRIs, are a type of antidepressant medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and panic attacks. SSRIs work to balance serotonin levels by blocking the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, which can help improve mood and reduce feelings of anxiety.?? Purines Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator in the brain and is involved in suppressing arousing and improving sleep.Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems.?? It plays a role in autonomic control, sensory transduction, and communication with glial cells. Research suggests it may also have a part in some neurological problems including pain, trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. Gasotransmitters Nitric oxide plays a role in affecting smooth muscles, relaxing them to allow blood vessels to dilate and increase blood flow to certain areas of the body.Carbon monoxide is usually known as being a colorless, odorless gas that can have toxic and potentially fatal effects when people are exposed to high levels of the substance. However, it is also produced naturally by the body where it acts as a neurotransmitter that helps modulate the bodys inflammatory response.?? Acetylcholine Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter in its class. Found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, it is the primary neurotransmitter associated with motor neurons.?? It plays a role in muscle movements as well as memory and learning. What Happens When Neurotransmitters Do Not Work Right As with many of the bodys processes, things can sometimes go awry. It is perhaps not surprising that a system as vast and complex as the human nervous system would be susceptible to problems. A few of the things that might go wrong include: Neurons might not manufacture enough of a particular neurotransmitterToo much of a particular neurotransmitter may be releasedToo many neurotransmitters may be deactivated by enzymesNeurotransmitters may be reabsorbed too quickly When neurotransmitters are affected by disease or drugs, there can be a number of different adverse effects on the body. Diseases such as  Alzheimers,  epilepsy, and  Parkinsons  are associated with deficits in certain neurotransmitters. Health professionals recognize the role that neurotransmitters can play in mental health conditions, which is why medications that influence the actions of the bodys chemical messengers are often prescribed to help treat a variety of psychiatric conditions. For example, dopamine is associated with such things as addiction and schizophrenia. Serotonin plays a role in mood disorders including depression and OCD.?? Drugs, such as SSRIs, may be prescribed by physicians and psychiatrists to help treat symptoms of depression or anxiety. Medications are sometimes used alone, but they may also be used in conjunction with other therapeutic treatments including cognitive-behavioral therapy. Drugs That Influence Neurotransmitters Perhaps the greatest practical application for the discovery and detailed understanding of how neurotransmitters function has been the development of drugs that impact chemical transmission. These drugs are capable of changing the effects of neurotransmitters, which can alleviate the symptoms of some diseases. Agonists vs Antagonists: Some drugs are known as agonists and function by increasing the effects of specific neurotransmitters. Other drugs and referred to as antagonists and act to block the effects of neurotransmission.??Direct vs Indirect Effects: These neuro-acting drugs can be further broken down based on whether they have a direct or indirect effect. Those that have a direct effect work by mimicking the neurotransmitters because they are very similar in chemical structure. Those that have an indirect impact work by acting on the synaptic receptors. Drugs that can influence neurotransmission include medications used to treat illness including depression and anxiety, such as SSRIs, tricyclic antidepressants, and benzodiazepines. Illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and marijuana also have an effect on neurotransmission. Heroin acts as a direct-acting agonist, mimicking the brains natural opioids enough to stimulate their associated receptors. Cocaine is an example of an indirect-acting drug that influences the transmission of dopamine.?? Identifying Neurotransmitters The actual identification of neurotransmitters can actually be quite difficult. While scientists can observe the vesicles containing neurotransmitters, figuring out what chemicals are stored in the vesicles is not quite so simple. Because of this, neuroscientists have developed a number of guidelines for determining whether or not a chemical should be defined as a neurotransmitter:?? The chemical must be produced inside the neuron.The necessary precursor enzymes must be present in the neuron.There must be enough of the chemical present to actually have an effect on the postsynaptic neuron.The chemical must be released by the presynaptic neuron, and the postsynaptic neuron must contain receptors that the chemical will bind to.There must be a reuptake mechanism or enzyme present that stops the action of the chemical. A Word From Verywell Neurotransmitters play a critical role in neural communication, influencing everything from involuntary movements to learning to mood. This system is both complex and highly interconnected. Neurotransmitters act in specific ways, but they can also be affected by diseases, drugs, or even the actions of other chemical messengers.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Health Problem Of Aids - 1652 Words

Getting to Know HIV Alberto Macias ID#: 58522456 PH 1- Dr. Bic November 8, 2015 Public Health Problem HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It attacks the t-cells in the human body and when it destroys so many, it leads to a disease called AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of the HIV infection. HIV is one of the few viruses that is yet to be curable, so once you contract it, you have it for life. It affects the cells of the immune system that fight off diseases or infections from the human body. This leads to a greater vulnerability to get deadly infections. Not many who have HIV advance to the final stage, AIDS because there is a medical procedure that can control it (CDC 2013). This medical procedure is called ART (antiretroviral therapy). HIV exists in our society and is spread mainly by having unprotected sex, sex without a condom with someone that has the disease. About 50,000 people get infected every year and if left untreated, it can lead to AIDS and be fatal. It is also spread through the sharing of syringes and needles with HIV+ patients for drug use. HIV does not survive for a prolong period of time outside the body, so the majority of documented cases occur when certain fluids-semen, blood, rectal and vaginal fluids from an HIV infected patient can transmit the virus. Studies show that the virus started in West Africa and was likely trans mitted from an infected chimpanzee to a humanShow MoreRelatedThe Health Problem Of Hiv / Aids2353 Words   |  10 Pages Health problem is a pathological state, in which a physical condition caused by the disease. To make the person free from the diseases is the main goal of the Health promotion program. Now I am interested to discuss about on epidemiological case i.e. HIV/AIDS, which is more common in world wide. 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At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. The rate of incidence is more prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa with almost 1 in every 24 adults living with HIV/AIDS. In the united states, HIV/AIDS is a diversified health problem affecting all sexes, ages and races and involving the transmission of multipleRead MoreProblem And Extent Of Hiv / Aids1539 Words   |  7 PagesProblem and Extent of HIV/AIDS Impact in China From the narrative, Dazou merely represents one of the thousands of people who have contracted HIV through paid plasma plasma donation and unhygienic blood banks. The National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China reports 501,000 reported cases of people living with HIV/AIDS. Although the pervasiveness of HIV may be low compared to China’s 1.3 billion population, certain communities have HIV prevalence rates as highRead MoreThe Health Of The Modern Health Care968 Words   |  4 Pagespopulation health factors are a subject of extensive discussion within the American health care system; nonetheless, few comprehend the bearing to the modern health care environment. An array of factors like personal, social, economic, and environment issues influence and determines the health of individual and population, acting in various combinations (Knickman Kovner, 2015). These determinants of health, known as population health determinants generall y include genetics, access to health care, individualRead MorePoor And Developing Countries All Over The World Have Health Problems1570 Words   |  7 Pagesdeveloping countries all over the world have health problems and are in major need of medical help. Sending aid to the countries seems like a logical solution to the problem, and can have benefits if used properly. Medical aid is any donation or service to help improve a situation by an organization or donor government. Eran Bendavid, an assistant professor in the Division of General Medicine Disciplines at Stanford University found that â€Å"Foreign aid for health care is directly linked to an increaseRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ) / Aids1278 Words   |  6 PagesHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is a pandemic problem affecting global health. At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were living with HIV/AIDS globally. The rate of incidence is more prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa with almost 1 in every 24 adults living with HIV/AIDS. In the united states, HIV/AIDS is a diversified health problem affecting all sexes, ages and races and involving the transmission of multiple risk behavior. However, with the introduction of various prevention programs andRead MoreMass Education On Hiv / Aids1073 Words   |  5 PagesProject I: Mass education on HIV/AIDS to reduce stigma a. Who is the in-country implementing partner? The Global Fund will partner the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC), a humanitarian social relief organization. The organization’s mission is to protect the health and lives of the people by launching its Nationwide HIV Programme. Within RSCS, it organizes a wide array of programs, ranging from disaster prepared to First Aid training. HIV/AIDS prevention and care is among one of the programs thatRead MoreThe Health Of The Population Health937 Words   |  4 Pagespopulation health factors is a subject of extensive discussion within American health care system, nonetheless, few comprehend the bearing to modern health care environment. An array of factors like personal, social, economic, and environment issues influence and determines the health of individual and population, acting in various combination (Knickman Kovner, 2015). These determinants of health, known as population health determinants generally include genetics, access to health care, individualRead MoreAfrican American Women Living With Hiv Aids1576 Words   |  7 PagesLIVING WITH HIV AIDS 1 AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV AIDS 9 African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS Ruth Dionne Davis SCWK 620 Winthrop University Department of Social Work Abstract HIV/AIDS is a major concern in the African American community. African American women have the highest incidence rate of HIV infection with a steady increase over the years. Extreme poverty, unemployment, underemployment and mental health issues are

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Money, Banking, and Financial Market Free Essay Example, 2500 words

The major cause of the financial crisis was increased uncertainties. Many people speculated that their investments will have greater yields in the future, and this was not the case. They incurred losses and this reduced their wealth. Also, the government of the United States had a lot of money and wanted to create self-employment for its citizens. They reduced the interest rates to encourage people to borrow these funds and invest. Many people did not return their loans and the country was reported to be bankrupt. Another major cause of the financial crisis was with the banks. They did not have adequate information about its customers, especially when giving out loans. The people too did not have trust with their banks and this led to bank runs and bank panics. This reduced the amount of money available in the financial system that could be used to develop other sectors of the economy. This forced the countries affected to borrow a huge sum of money from the World Bank and this incr eased their debts. The stock prices were also reduced for the government to obtain the little funds that were in the economy to finance its operations. We will write a custom essay sample on Money, Banking, and Financial Market or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Research Proposal Electronic Health Records Free Essays

string(48) " that the computer literacy rate was high \(72\." Effects of Technological Experience on Adoption and Usage of Electronic Health Records Introduction The integration of electronic health records in the IT infrastructures supporting medical facilities enables improved access to and recording of patient data, enhanced ability to make more informed and more-timely decisions, and decreased errors. Despite these benefits, there are mixed results as to the use of EHR. The aim of this research is to determine if medical health professionals who lack experience with technology are slower to adopt and use electronic health records (EHR). We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal Electronic Health Records or any similar topic only for you Order Now Research has shown that the healthcare industry is plagued by rapidly increasing costs and poor quality. The United States medical care is the world’s most costly, but its outcomes are mediocre compared with other industrialized, and some non-industrialized, nations. Medical errors are a major problem resulting in upwards of 98000 deaths a year; as a result, patient safety has become a top priority. The healthcare system has been slow to take advantage of EHR and realize the benefits of computerization: that is, to improve access to records and patient data, to reduce incorrect dose errors, avoid drug interactions, and ensure the right patient is in the operating room (Noteboom 2012). Despite the obvious benefits a 2007 survey by the American Hospital Association reported that only 11% of hospitals had fully implemented EHR. Another study by Vishwanath Scamurra reported less than 10% of physicians in different practices and settings in the US use EHR. Blumenthal (2009) cites only 1. 5% of US hospitals have comprehensive EHR systems. A similar 2009 study by the American Hospital Association shows less than 2% of hospitals use comprehensive EHR and about 8% use a basic EHR in at least one care unit. These findings indicate the adoption of HER continues to be low in US hospitals (Manos, 2009). Understanding the reason for the lack of technological integration is pivotal to securing quality and affordable medical care. Education expert Mark Prensky (2001) defined two terms, digital natives and digital immigrants, which he used to describe those who have an innate ability for technology from an early age (native) and those who are slower to learn and adopt it (immigrant). This disparity is suggested to play a key role in the ability and desire of professional to use technological solutions in their day-to-day activities. Our intent is to expand this possibility to medical health professionals’ use of electronic health records. Our research will attempt to determine if being native to technology has any impact on a practitioner’s desire to incorporate information technology in to their work routine. We will also see if natives have perform better in health information settings as has been shown in other areas. Previous Research A 2008 study by DesRoches et al. attempted to discern barriers to the adoption of electronic health records. The authors conducted a survey of physicians registered in the masterfile of the American Medical Association, excluding Doctors of Osteopathy. The authors listed 4 basic reasons the respondents could choose from; financial barriers, organizational barriers, legal barriers, and barriers from the state of the technology. Respondents could further clarify their responses base on subgroups. Financial barriers could include initial capital to implement the systems or uncertainty about the return on investment. Organizational barriers were sub-divided in to physician didn’t want to, the physicians did not have the capacity to, or they feared there would be a loss of productivity during implementation. Legal barriers included fears of breaches of confidentiality, hackers, and legal liability. State of technology included failure to locate an EHR that could meet their needs or that the system would become obsolete to quickly. Their results show that 66% of physicians without EHR’s cited capital costs as a reason. The also responded with not finding a system to meet their needs, 54%, uncertainty about their return on the investment, 50%, and concern that a system would become obsolete, 44%. Physicians working in locations with EHRs tended to highlight the same barriers, though less frequently. The authors concluded that financial limitations are the greatest barrier to the adoption of electronic health records. They do admit that their study, like all surveys, could be subject to response bias. Burt (2005) also surveyed physicians, this time from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a yearly survey conducted by the US census bureau. The authors were attempting to find correlations between EHR implementation and other statistics, such as age, practice size, and ownership (physician, physician group, or HMO). They used regression modeling and bivariate analysis of three years of survey data. They found that practices owned by HMOs were three times more likely to adopt EHR as single physician or group owned practices. Also, large physician group owned practices (20 or more) had an increased usage of EHR over small group and single physician owned. The authors reported that there were no variations due to practice size in the different ownership groups. Physicians’ age did not have any effect on EHR usage. The authors concluded that the ability of larger practices to spread the sizable investment required to purchase and implement the technology over more physicians and services was the largest factor in implementation EHR. Laerum (2001) was the first to look at how individual Physicians interact and use EHRs on an everyday basis. The conducted surveys and telephone interviews with physician in 32 units of 19 hospitals in Norway, because a much higher percentage of Norwegian hospitals use EHR, about 73%. The authors selected 23 possible common tasks a physician that could be assisted by or completed by an EHR. The also collected computer literacy data, respondent age and sex and overall satisfaction with the system. The authors found that very few of the possible tasks were being utilized in the EHR. The found that on average physicians were using EHR for 2 to 7 of the possible 23 tasks. Most of the tasks used related to reading patient data. The also found that the computer literacy rate was high (72. You read "Research Proposal Electronic Health Records" in category "Essay examples" 2/100) and there was no correlation with respondents age or sex. They gave the users satisfaction as a generally positive rating. Though demonstrating that physicians use EHR less than they could they gave no explanation as to why. Simon (2009) followed the same path as Laerum mentioned above, surveying physicians usage of EHR in practices that have systems deployed. The authors identified ten main functions available in EHR systems deployed in hospitals in Massachusetts. They attempted to determine if these ten functions were actually being utilized or if the physicians were still using paper. The authors deployed mail based surveys, in 2005 and 2007, to physician in Massachusetts. The surveys asked the practitioners if they had an EHR deployed in their hospital, if and how they used the EHR for the ten predetermined tasks, and simple demographic information. The authors found that while EHR deployment grew by 12% (from 23% to 35% of hospitals), the amount of usage self reported didn’t change. EHRs were still mostly being used for reading patient data, but there was a small increase in the use of electronic prescribing, with 19. 9% of physicians with this function available in 2005 using it most of the time, compared to 42. 6% in 2007. Linder (2006) expanded on this by asking why physicians aren’t using EHRs. The authors also conducted a survey of Partners Healthcare; which supports an internally developed, web based, fully functioning EHR called Longitudinal Medical Record. They also expanded their base to include nurses, nurse practitioners, and physicians. The survey contained basic demographic information, self-reporting skill level with the EHR, how often they used the EHR, and what they felt were barriers to their use of the system. Since this survey was contained to a system that had already implemented the EHR, the authors had removed the typical barriers of capital as reported above, but they still found that 25% never or rarely used the system, and less than 15% used the system exclusively every time, i. e. never took paper notes or wrote paper prescriptions. They found no correlation of EHR usage to age or gender, but did find that nurses were slightly less likely to use the system. The most uprising data was why practitioners said they didn’t use the EHR with 62% of respondents saying they didn’t want to suffer a loss of eye contact with the patients and 31% of respondents saying that they thought it was rude to use a computer in front of a patient. Other notable reasons were falling behind schedule at 52%, computer being to slow (49%), typing skill (32%), and preferring to write â€Å"long prose notes† (28%). This was the first study to identify social barriers to the adoption of EHR in professional settings. Since the majority of the research had been unable to identify simple solutions a series of workshops consisting of industry leaders were formed to study the problem. Kaplan (2009) reports that participants convened and discussed current issues and challenges with widespread adoption of EHR. The workshops conclude that while there are still some technical issues with Information technology in the health sector the main focus needs to shift to revealing sociological and cultural problems. Noteboom (2012) took a different method to determine barriers to EHR adoption; eschewing all previous research in to problems with the usage of EHRs. The authors decide to use an approach more commonly seen in social sciences called open coding, a type of grounded theory. This method is almost the complete revers of traditional research in that it starts with data collection. From this data, key points of text, in this case transcripts from case studies, are marked with a series of codes. These codes are anchors that allow key points of data to be gathered. The researcher can then use these key points to construct a theory or hypothesis. Noteboom started with simple interviews with physician, attempting to elicit â€Å"perceptions, meanings, feelings, reasons, and comments† about their interaction with EHRs. The interviewed physician at the Research Medical Center, Kansas City, and labeled the transcripts of these interviews. From these interviews the authors discovered that users of EHR fall victim to positive and negative work cycles. Positive cycles are ways in which the system helps the physician, i. e. quicker reading of patient data or mining historical data. Negative cycles are tasks that take longer like data entry, which was done by nurses prior to EHR implementation, or lack of specific functions for specialists, calculate rad dosage for radiation therapy. Design Our research methodology will consist of a case study of medical health professional, preferably physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and nurse practitioners, currently employed in an institute running EHRs. The primary data will be gathered through interviews to elicit perceptions on ability to adapt to and use new technology, feelings on the implementation of the technology, comments about the systems, and history of their technology use (to determine natives and immigrants). Secondary data will be collected by having competent users observing participants interaction with the system and evaluating their efficacy. Once the data has been collected it will be analyzed to determine if there is any correlation between digital natives and digital immigrants as it pertains to their use of EHR. Special attention will be paid to how often the system is used compared to the theoretical maximum and how efficient the practitioner is compared to how efficient they perceive they are. Requirements to conduct this study are small. All that is required are willing hospitals that have EHR systems installed, hopefully with a diverse staff spanning many age groups and experience levels. We would also require around 5 interviewers who are well versed in assessing software efficacy to conduct the interviews and gauge practitioners’ abilities on the EHR system. Statistical data will be calculated on IBM SPSS or similar. ? References Bates, D. W. , Ebell, M. , Gotlieb, E. , Zapp, J. , Mullins, H. C. (2003). A proposal for electronic medical records in US primary care. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 10(1), 1-10. Blumenthal, D. (2009). Stimulating the adoption of health information technology. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(15), 1477-1479. Burt, C. W. , Sisk, J. E. (2005). Which physicians and practices are using electronic medical records?. Health Affairs, 24(5), 1334-1343. DesRoches, C. M. , Campbell, E. G. , Rao, S. R. , Donelan, K. , Ferris, T. G. , Jha, A. , †¦ Blumenthal, D. (2008). Electronic health records in ambulatory care—a national survey of physicians. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(1), 50-60 Kohn, L. T. , Corrigan, J. , Donaldson, M. S. (2000). To err is human: building a safer health system (Vol. 6). Joseph Henry Press. Kaplan, B. , Harris-Salamone, K. D. (2009). Health IT success and failure: recommendations from literature and an AMIA workshop. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(3), 291-299. L? rum, H. , Ellingsen, G. , Faxvaag, A. (2001). Doctors’ use of electronic medical records systems in hospitals: cross sectional survey. Bmj, 323(7325), 1344-1348. Linder, J. A. , Schnipper, J. L. , Tsurikova, R. , Melnikas, A. J. , Volk, L. A. , Middleton, B. (2006). Barriers to electronic health record use during patient visits. In AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings (Vol. 2006, p. 499). American Medical Informatics Association Manos, D. (2009). New study shows few hospitals have comprehensive EHR. Healthcare IT News. McDonald, C. J. (1997). The barriers to electronic medical record systems and how to overcome them. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 4(3), 213-221. Noteboom, C. , Bastola, D. , Qureshi, S. (2012, January). Cycles of Electronic Health Records Adaptation by Physicians: How Do the Positive and Negative Experiences with the EHR System Affect Physicians’ EHR Adaptation Process?. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 2685-2695). IEEE Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants Part 2: Do they really think differently?. On the horizon, 9(6), 1-6 Simon, S. R. , Soran, C. S. , Kaushal, R. , Jenter, C. A. , Volk, L. A. , Burdick, E. , †¦ Bates, D. W. (2009). Physicians’ use of key functions in electronic health records from 2005 to 2007: a statewide survey. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(4), 465-470. Vishwanath, A. , Scamurra, S. D. (2007). Barriers to the adoption of electronic health records: using concept mapping to develop a comprehensive empirical model. Health Informatics Journal, 13(2), 119-134. How to cite Research Proposal Electronic Health Records, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

History of the Tibetan Genocide Essay Example For Students

History of the Tibetan Genocide Essay For 48 years, China has occupied Tibet. In Tibets history, there has been over 17 percent of the Tibetan people killed, and 6,000 monasteries ruined. For starters, Tibet was never part of China. During the first few years when China was in control of Tibet, the Chinese declared that Tibet should be part of China, because an Emperor of Tibet once married a Chinese princess. Years later, the Chinese said that Tibet was part of China because of the warrior Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan and the Mongolians were in control of Tibet, but they never made Tibet belong to China. Secondly, the Tibetan people and the Chinese are totally different, culturally and socially speaking. Both peoples have their own culture, way of life, and religion. Of course the language is very diverse, too. Tibet had their own government before the Chinese took over. It was led by His Royal Highness, the Dalai Lama. Before the Chinese came in and took over Tibet, Tibet had nothing to do with China. The Chinese invaded Tibet in July of 1949. They caused many disasters and much sadness to the Tibetan people. Today Tibet is nothing but a prison. The Chinese continually spy on the Tibetan people. Seventeen percent of the Tibetan population was killed. Many Chinese forcibly removed Tibetans out of their homes at any time, day or night, and sometimes these people were thrown into prison. These people also were often killed for no reason. Ever since the Chinese have taken over the Tibetan people, there have been over 1 millon people killed. There were 6 million Tibetans living in Tibet before the Chinese came and took over the country. In the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, the natives of Tibet are being rid of by the Chinese; the Chinese are filling up Lhasa with Chinese people and the Chinese want to make Tibet throughly Chinese. Today, the Tibetan people are a minority in their own country! All the better jobs go to the Chinese people living in Tibet. The Tibetan people cannot find jobs for themselves, the best job sometimes they can get is to become a truck driver. What the Chinese are really doing is committing against the Tibetan people, a cultural and religious genocide. The culture of Tibet is based on Bons ancient beliefs, and also on Buddhism from India. The Tibetans take the best of the two religions, and their entire culture is based on that. But now the Chinese have gotten rid of the beautiful Tibetan artifacts, and turned them into museums, for tourists only. The Dalai Lama is always trying to make contact with the Chinese, but they keep the door to peace talks closed. Some time ago, the Dalai Lama said: All the 6 million Tibetans should be on the list of endangered species. This struggle is my first responsibility. (Dalai Lama: There are people all over the world who feel sincere solidarity with the courageous people of Tibet, and wish them success in their long, truly heroic struggle for liberty and peace. .